12th of April, 07
-Lab report-

Squash ball investigation



Soo Jeong Koh
9A

Aim- Aim of squash ball investigations is to investigate how temperature affects the bounce of the squash ball when it’s dropped from 1meter height and also to find out ways to calculate the data into energy.

Hypothesis
Prediction- I predict that as the temperature water increases the squash ball in the water while heating will increase its temperature too. Higher temperature of squash ball in cause higher bounces on the ground. I also predict that gravitational potential energy can be found with the data I will be collecting from the experiment.
Scientific reasons- Scientific reasons for my prediction are that as the temperature of the squash ball increases, the pressure of the air in the squash ball increases too. As the pressure of the air in the squash ball increases the squash ball will bounce off from the ground higher because if increase of air pressure is increase of the air traveling in the squash ball. Gravitational potential energy will be found from the data I’ll be collecting because mass of the ball will be given, and the height of the rebound will be given as well when the experiment is done.

Key Variable
Independent variable- temperature of the water
Dependent variable- Rebound height
Controlled variable- Squash ball

Apparatus and materials
  • Squash ball
  • Beaker
  • Tap water
  • Tong
  • Heat proof mat
  • Bunsen burner
  • Tripod
  • Gauze
  • Meter stick
  • Stand and clamp
  • Thermometer

Method (rebound experiment)
1. Set up Bunsen burner with heat proof mat, tripod, and gauze.
2. Use Stand and clamp to clamp the meter stick very straight. (It should be clamped very straight because it can cause some error in data.)
3. Fill beaker with half full of tap water from the sink, and put thermometer in the water
4. Light the Bunsen burner with match. You should be always being careful when you are lighting Bunsen burner. If you are a girl you should tie your hair up before you use the match.
5. Put squash ball in to the water and put the beaker on the gauze
6. Start heating water until the temperature of water reaches 50C°, use tong to take ball out of the beaker.
7. Drop the squash ball from 1 meter above ground using a meter stick, and watch how much the squash ball rebounds off the ground. You should look closely to collect more accurate data. This must be done very quickly because the temperature of the ball might drop.
8. Record data on my table
9. Repeat this method with same temperature two more times to find out the average height in the data processing.
10. Repeat method 6-9 with different temperatures. (60 C°, 70 C°, 80 C°, and 90 C°)
Method (finding volume of the squash ball)
  1. fill the beaker with full of water
  2. Under the beaker full of water, put larger empty beaker
  3. Deep the squash ball into the beaker full of water
  4. When the ball is put into the beaker some water will fall to another beaker
  5. Take out the ball from the beaker and take beaker out from the larger beaker
  6. Measure the amount of water in the beaker and it is the volume of the squash ball.
Result tables

Temperature of the water (C°)
Rebound1 (cm)
Rebound2 (cm)
Rebound3 (cm)
Average height (cm)
50
27.0
23.0
26.0
25.3
60
30.0
33.0
32.0
31.6
70
42.0
41.0
41.0
41.3
80
50.0
46.0
50.0
48.6
90
50.0
55.0
53.0
52.6

Mass of the squash ball = 24.1gram
Volume of the squash ball = 27 cm^3

*Temperature of the water is equal to the temperature of the squash ball as the ball was kept in the water while heating.

Data processing

Energy transfer
Lose in GPE – Kinetic energy – Sound
- Heat



Gravitational Potential energy
Lose in GPE
= mgh(mass x gravity x height)

Temperature of the water =50 C°
Average height =25.3 cm
Mass of the squash ball= 24.1 g
= 24.1 x 10 (gravity of the earth) x 25.3
= 6,097.3
Lose in GPE in temperature of 50 C°= 6,097.3 joules

Temperature of the water = 60 C°
Average height = 31.6 cm
Mass of the squash ball = 24.1g
= 24.1 x 10 (gravity of the earth) x 31.6
= 7,615.6

Lose in GPE in temperature of 60 C° = 7,615.5 joules

Temperature of the water = 70 C°
Average height = 41.7 cm
Mass of the squash ball = 24.1g
= 24.1 x 10 (gravity of the earth) x 41.7
= 10,049.7

Lose in GPE in temperature of 70 C° = 10,049.7 joules

Temperature of the water = 80
Average height = 48.6 cm
Mass of the squash ball = 24.1g
= 24.1 x 10 (gravity of the earth) x 48.6
= 11,712.6

Lose in GPE in temperature of 80 C° = 11,712.6 joules

Temperature of the water = 90
Average height = 52.6 cm
Mass of the squash ball = 24.1g
= 24.1 x 10 (gravity of the earth) x 52.6
= 12,676.6

Lose in GPE in temperature of 90 C° = 12,676.6 joules


Lose in Gravitational Potential energy

Temperature of the water (C°)
Energy ( joules)
50
6097.30
60
7,615.60
70
10,049.70
80
11,712.60
90
12,676.60

Lose in GPE = Kinetic energy

Using this method the speed of the squash ball when it fell from the 1meter above ground can be found.

Temperature of the water = 50 C°

Gravitational potential energy = 6097.30 J
Mass of the squash ball = 24.1 g

Kinetic energy= 1/2mv^2

V^2= Kinetic energy /0.5m
V^2= 6097.30/12.05
V^2= 506
V= 22.49(2dp)

Speed of the squash ball in temperature of 50 C° = 22.49 m/s (2dp)

Temperature of the water = 60 C°

Gravitational potential energy = 7615.6 J
Mass of the squash ball = 24.1 g

Kinetic energy = 1/2mv^2

V^2= Kinetic energy/0.5m
V^2= 7615.6 / 12.05
V^2 = 632
V = 25.14(2dp)

Speed of the squash ball in temperature of 60 C°= 25.14 m/s (2dp)

Temperature of the water = 70 C°

Gravitational Potential energy = 10049.70 J
Mass of the squash ball = 24.1 g

Kinetic energy = 1/2mv^2

V^2= kinetic energy/ 0.5m
V^2= 10049.7/12.05
V^2 = 834
V= 28.88(2dp)

Speed of the squash ball in temperature of 70 C° = 28.88 m/s (2dp)

Temperature of the water = 80 C°

Gravitational potential energy = 11712.6J
Mass of the squash ball = 24.1 g

Kinetic energy = 1/2mv^2

V^2= Kinetic energy/ 0.5m
V^2=11712.6/ 12.05
V^2= 972
V= 31.18(2dp)

Speed of the squash ball in temperature of 80 C°= 31.18m/s (2dp)

Temperature of the water = 90 C°

Gravitational Potential energy = 12676.6 J
Mass of the squash ball = 24.1 g

Kinetic energy = 1/2mv^2
V^2= kinetic energy/ 0.5m
V^2 = 12676.6 / 12.05
V^2 = 1052
V = 32.43 (2dp)

Speed of the squash ball in temperature of 90 C° = 32.43m/s (2dp)


Speed of the squash ball when it fell

Temperature of the water (C°)
Speed m/s
50
22.49
60
25.14
70
28.88
80
31.18
90
32.43
Diagram



The diagram above shows how Gravitational potential energy is equal to Kinetic energy. There are heat energy taking place here because of air friction.

Data analyzing


The graph I have shows that as the temperature of the squash ball increases the rebound of the ball increases constantly too. This proves that I have made correct prediction in my hypothesis before. Gravitational potential energy found from the data I have collected also had constant increase of energy as the temperature of the squash ball increased. Kinetic energy can be also found using the gravitational potential energy I have found with my data using conversation of energy. When the object falls the amount of energy it lose from the gravitational potential energy, it gains the same amount of energy it lost in kinetic energy when it reach the ground. No other energy is created or lost because of air friction. So kinetic energy found from the falling squash ball is equal to its gravitational potential energy. Using the kinetic energy I have found I could found out the speed of the falling squash ball depending on the temperature of the ball. The speed of the ball also has increased constantly as the temperature of the squash ball increased.

Conclusion

The temperature of the squash ball affects its rebound from the ground as the height of the rebound of the ball increased constantly when the temperature of the squash ball increased. While I was working on GPE of the squash ball I could also find that kinetic energy was equal to GPE of the squash ball. It was equal to the GPE according to the conversation of energy in the booklet and its first example showed how it was equal to the GPE of the object. From the kinetic energy I have found I could also see that the temperature of the squash ball also has affected the speed of the ball. After I have found out the speed of the squash ball I could notice that the speed of the ball has increased constantly as the temperature of the ball was increased. The temperature of the squash ball affected bounce but it also has affected many different things. It has affected the GPE, kinetic, and speeds of the squash ball.

Evaluation

I found quite hard working on this investigation for this term. Our group took the longest to collect data from the experiment as our experiment made few errors which we needed to correct, and other than making errors in the data we also had some problems setting the apparatus and starting our experiment. Other then this investigation seemed to go well till I wrote my data processing. I couldn’t find any other ways of processing my data but lose in GPE of the squash ball when it fell. It took me few days for me to find other ways of processing my data. Other ways of processing my data was found in the booklet we studied in this unit. While I was going through the booklet I read one example very similar to my experiment. It was the man diving into water. The example said that lose in GPE when the object fall is equal to the kinetic energy when the object reach the ground because no other energy takes place in this situation because of air friction in the air. In this way I could calculate the speed of the squash ball when it fell using the kinetic energy I have found and also has notice that the speed of the squash ball is affected with the temperature of the squash ball.